~~~ Our Conundrum with The Founding Fathers ~~~

Been thinking … been thinking about what the Founding Fathers would think of how the America they created is doing these days. Of course, the Founders were of many different opinions – they had some serious disagreements before settling on what they did — the Constitution & the Bill of Rights, all prefaced by the Declaration of Independence years before. So, I imagine, that each of those men would have a slightly different take on 2018 America. My only choice is to group them together as one, as those documents were their collective consensus.

Founding Fathers

Were they liberals or conservatives? We all claim them as our own, but that is quite impossible. They couldn’t be both, could they? Liberals claim they were “progressive” radicals. Conservatives believe that they were, like themselves, “conservatives.”

Times change and what was conservative & liberal in the 18th century have changed with them.

I am of the opinion that liberalism has been distorted & mutated so drastically by those who call themselves “progressive” that it would no longer be recognized by our Founders. Conservativism, on the other hand, might be recognized as being similar to what they believed. It was outrageous and daring in their time – going against the Crown, and all – but their principles are very much conservative today. Libertarian at the very least. Their actions were very radical, but their beliefs by today’s standards were not. So, what were they?

I recall watching a Meghan Kelly interview with one of the Koch brothers back when she had her show on Fox News. It was very enlightening for me because about all I knew of them, other than that they are big political donors, was that today’s “progressives” despise them and place much of the blame for America’s woes on them. She asked him about his political leanings. His answer surprised me.

Classical Liberal. That’s what he said. What’s that?

“‘Classical liberalism’ is the term used to designate the ideology advocating private property, an unhampered market economy, the rule of law, constitutional guarantees of freedom of religion and of the press, and international peace based on free trade.”

Dang, that does sound a lot like conservatism today. Again, Libertarian at the very least. It also sounds a lot like the Founders. One thing it does NOT sound like is today’s “liberalism,” which, like the party it thrives in, is something altogether different from “classical liberalism.” It is “progressivism” which appears to be code for socialism.

All of which leads me to believe that there is little doubt that, if it is at all possible, our Founding Fathers MUST be rolling over in their graves. Though they would most likely be amazed at some aspects of our America, they would probably not recognize Her as a direct descendant of their writings.

We sure could use the wisdom of the Founding Fathers today.

You know what’s funny? The very label – Founding Fathers – is found to be offensive by many “progressives.” No way the Founders could identify as today’s “progressive.” They would be harangued and thwarted at every turn. Just like we are.

Waco: Wondering Why


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… But I still could not quite believe that the U.S. government would actually mount a military-style assault on a community with women and children. Everything American in me was stunned by the possibility that my own government might wipe us out. Where’s Paul Revere when we need him? I thought childishly. Where are the Minute Men who should stand by our side? … — David Thibodeau, Waco: A Survivor’s Story

Atlantas 5_27_2018 4_29_01 PM

Perhaps it has been my lifelong fascination with “last stands.” Little Bighorn, the Alamo, Rourke’s Drift, the 300 at Thermopylae … I don’t know. Or, maybe, it’s because of a natural curiosity of the diversity of religious faiths. Probably, a bit of both. Could simply be a root-for-the-underdog thing. Regardless, the story of the 51 day siege of a small religious community at Waco, Texas has recently caught my imagination.

It hasn’t always been that way.

I recall driving through Texas in 1994 and passing by Waco. “Whacko Waco,” I think I said. I have come to realize, that was hardly a unique thought. It was horrendous to watch the news clips the year before, but I figured the Branch Davidians were just a bunch of looney-tunes. Seems most everyone felt similarly. After all, the news presented it as a Jonestown-type mass suicide by a religious cult led by charismatic, but delusional, leader. Scenes of that self-induced massacre were actually shown on television along with the horrors happening live at the little “compound” known as Mount Carmel. David Koresh was their inspiration.

I don’t think I ever thought about it again. Maybe a time or two.

Then, marking the 25th anniversary of the initial shootout with the ATF, the Paramount Network began airing a series about the events called, simply, Waco. “After watching it [6 episodes] – and I am not sure how faithful it is to reality, though it is based on 2 books, one by an FBI agent another by a surviving Davidian [Thibodeau] – I may have changed my mind. It appears to be a fair & balanced presentation. I thought it was pretty close to excellent!” I wrote on Facebook on March 2.

After much reading, including David Thibodeau’s very forthright book, and watching numerous documentaries, I believe the series depicted events very much as they really happened – with allowances for time compression and some television trappings.

The siege at Waco began on February 28th, 1993 with a vicious gun fight and ended in a blazing fury on April 19th of the same year – perhaps, not so serendipitously, the same day – in 1775 – that the Minute Men of Lexington, Massachusetts stood up to the British army to begin the American Revolution.

Besides whether or not Koresh was divinely-inspired, there are two main points of contention regarding this sordid episode: who fired first on February 28, and who started the fire on April 19. I wish I knew, but I am convinced to my own satisfaction that the ATF fired first, and the FBI caused the fire. Fresh off the Ruby Ridge fiasco in Idaho, the ATF was in danger of being defunded. Here was an opportunity for redemption. With stories of children being molested and a reported storehouse of illegal weapons floating about, the ATF certainly approached the scene in an odd manner – helicopters & scores of heavily armed agents to serve a warrant for one man. One who could have easily been picked up away from Mount Carmel on numerous occasions. If the Davidians fired first, then … why …?

  • Why would David Koresh open the front door himself to try to diffuse the situation?
  • Why would a 911 call be made from inside the building?
  • Why was the media en route to the event before it even happened?
  • Why was a story run in the local paper to coincide with the event?
  • Why was the ATF’s public relations team involved with cameras rolling?

adf8048f81d3e02f2c0c821cba5357cfIt should also be noted that Koresh’s polygamous relationships with underage wives aside, psychologists who examined the children who were released at various times during the early stages of the siege found no evidence of abuse and reported that these kids behaved in normal & expected ways. The group supported themselves by an assortment of means, including an offsite auto repair shop, carpentry, rock band, buying & selling legal firearms at gun shows … one Davidian, Wayne Martin, even had a small law office in town. In short, the group was legitimate in most every way.

After running out of ammo and calling a mutual cease fire, the ATF skulked away carting their four dead and 16, or so, wounded; to be replaced by the FBI’s Hostage Rescue Team & negotiating units. At odds, the two factions of on-site FBI bickered about tactics for the duration of the siege. The HRT employed sleep deprivation tactics – bright lights, blaring music [including Nancy Sinatra’s These Boots Were Made For Walking – a not-so-subtle taunt] & bizarre sounds all night long. Finally, the decision was made to “insert” tear gas into the building to force the occupants out.

As modified tanks drove over cars, carts, grave sites and anything else in their path, “This is not an assault!” was announced over the loudspeakers. Apparently unaware of the dichotomy, the tanks repeatedly smashed into the walls of the building that served as chapel, gym, dormitories, offices, cafeteria, walk-in vault & other living quarters “inserting” the gas – for hours. No one came out.

Then the building burst into flames. How? Why?

  • Why tanks?
  • Why flammable CS gas?
  • Why did this “insertion” of gas go on for nearly 6 full hours?
  • Why attempt this on a blustery, gusty day?
  • Why use techniques designed for “Hostage/Barricade” situations when no one was a hostage and there were no barricades?

The power had been cut off by the FBI for some time. The folks inside burned lanterns for light, small heaters for warmth. It stands to reason that the tanks – or the panic inside – knocked over these items causing the fire. The FBI says otherwise. Some 70+ people died in the fire, most of them women & children. Many were found in the vault where they presumably sought shelter from the gas.

Nine Davidians escaped the blaze. One of those was David Thibodeau.


David Thibodeau and actor Rory Culkin who portrayed him in Waco

ATF and FBI accounts to the contrary, I believe the words of Thibodeau over all others. He was not seeking religion, but had a chance meeting with David Koresh at a Guitar Center in Los Angeles. Koresh needed a drummer. He ended up spending a few years with the Branch Davidians and describes Koresh as a genuine, down-to-earth kind of guy. He saw no child abuse, no over-the-top gun fetishes; he saw no signs of a mass suicide, saw no one start any fires. He was an unlikely member of the group, yet he ended up believing in Koresh. It would seem that he has no axe to grind. He only wants to set the record straight. He writes with a very personal touch and I got to feel like I know him well.

Most accounts I have seen or read place most of the blame on David Koresh and his followers. Certainly the ATF and FBI would agree. So do a few disaffected Branch Davidians who left the group before these events. If you ever get a chance, watch the video documentary, Waco: The Rules of Engagement. There – during Congressional hearings on this affair in 1995 – you will see & hear Chuck Schumer, Joe Biden and other prominent Democrats defending the actions of the ATF/FBI in no uncertain terms.

I don’t know how one justifies or defends this.

Tanks, helicopters, SWAT teams, psychological warfare, assault rifles, tear gas – Operation Showtime – bizarre. All this for one man. All this arrayed against women and small children. It is completely unjustified. Hard to comprehend that it could occur in America. Home of the free and the brave. Home of the Minute Men.

One can only wonder … why?

Notes & thoughts:

— Oklahoma City bomber, Timothy McVeigh, found his “inspiration” from the incidents at Ruby Ridge & Waco. He sought “revenge.”

— If you search the Internet, you can find truly gruesome images of the FBI’s [possibly inadvertent] handiwork.

— At the time of the fire, David Koresh was dictating his explanation of the Seven Seals from the Book of Revelation [or, Apocalypse] in The Holy Bible. He was to come out, with all his followers, after its completion as per a negotiated agreement with the FBI. He had only finished the First Seal when the FBI ran out of patience. A copy, on disk, was brought out by survivor, Ruth Riddle. Again, it can be found on the Internet. One copy can be found here: David Koresh’s First Seal – Note the comments at the end regarding its veracity

—  Biblical scholar, James D. Tabor, PhD, has vouched for the sincerity of Koresh’s work. He is not alone. In fact, Steve Schneider, who was a student of theology, was Koresh’s right-hand man. In the beginning, he was a skeptic, so he invited one of his professors to debate the Seven Seals with Koresh. After that, Schneider was a devout believer.

— For any who might argue, my only reason for writing this was to point out how unnecessary this debacle was. The Davidians I have heard speak come across as calm, reasonable people. Koresh had his, shall I say, “issues” that even Thibodeau could not come to grips with, but he was completely versed in Scripture – had the Book committed to memory – and was able to captivate his audience for long hours at a time. Mount Carmel was, above all, a religious community. As one of the FBI negotiators rhetorically asked, “How do you negotiate with God?”

— I am more willing to come out when I get my message from my commander. — David Koresh

— Today, there is a simple monument marking the site.


Do catch Waco on the Paramount Network

[Hopefully, out on DVD one of these days!]


Sources & Recommended Reading & Viewing


Waco: A Survivor’s Story … David Thibodeau

Stalling For Time : My Life as an FBI Hostage Negotiator …  Gary Noesner

The Ashes of Waco: An Investigation … Dick J. Reavis

Why Waco? Cults and the Battle for Religious Freedom in America … James D. Tabor & Eugene V. Gallagher

A Journey to Waco … Clive Doyle


Waco: The Rules of Engagement

Waco: Clive Doyle: In Defense Of

Waco: Madman or Messiah 

My review of Thibodeaus’s book on Amazon:

on March 26, 2018

I recall hearing about “Wacko” Waco back in 1993. More than just hearing, of course, because the televised images were disturbing, to say the least. My opinion, at the time – and almost to the present, really – based on what media reports I had seen, was that it was a tragic episode but that the occupants of the “compound” had it coming to them. Still, it was hard to make sense of tanks being used against unseen Americans.

Then came the Paramount Network’s 6-part mini-series called, “Waco.” Well, dang, that wasn’t the story I expected.

So, I began seeking material to read, videos to watch …. because the television program deeply piqued my interest. “Waco: A Survivor’s Story,” by an unlikely participant & survivor, David Thibodeau [wonderfully portrayed by Rory Culkin in the series], has been the most fascinating find to date. The book is written in an easy-going manner that allows the reader to feel like he is being spoken to directly by Mr. Thibodeau. I came away from my reading of the book with a profoundly painful sense of mourning. The show, partly based on this book, was extremely well done, engaging and traumatic. This book is nothing less.

Now, those good folks who were so callously dispatched to a fiery death by the FBI assault – that is, those who hadn’t already been gunned down on day one of a 51 day siege by the ATF – have taken on a personal and human form. I see them now as if they were my neighbor. It’s hard to fathom that this all actually occurred. The siege at Waco, Texas has forever been etched into my being. David Thibodeau allowed me to feel his pain. Our pain, really.

A great read and a solemn reminder of just how precious our liberty is.

Images grabbed from the Internet. No copyright infringement intended.

~~ Rich Federici, April 19, 2018 ~~

Look to Evil …


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A hammer doesn’t build a house, people do.

A car doesn’t drive itself [well, until recently], people do.

A book doesn’t read or write itself, people do.

A gun doesn’t kill people, people kill people.

It’s really that simple. A hammer, a car, a book, a gun all have one thing in common; they are inanimate objects. Left to their own devices, they just sit there and collect dust. Believe me, I have dusty stuff all over the place. Humans are unique. We are far from inanimate; we think, we feel, we act. And, to the extent any of the zillions of inanimate objects we use every day are evil, it would only be due to the manner in which they were used – or misused – by a human. They are all just mere tools.

If a hammer smashes the brains out of a man on the street, it’s because of a human.

If a car mows down scores of pedestrians in the name of Allah, it’s because of a human.

If a book is used as kindling to burn down a family’s home, it’s because of a human.

And, if a gun mows down 17 children at a school, it because of a human.

That tells me the place to look is at human behavior. Look to evil.

It is often said that America has some sort of Cowboy-style “gun culture.” That is pure BS. I have 4 guns and all 4 are very well-behaved. I have them because I like them. I have them because I want home defense. I have one because it is something of a collector’s item. That is the case with almost all gun-owners; self-defense, hunting, recreational shooting. Hardly a “gun culture.” WE have a device [read Smart Phone] culture – and a lot of harm comes from it.

We are blessed to live in this Country – a country we may be ruining, but a country that was founded on the highest principles & freedoms. We are so fortunate for that. The right to own and bear arms is a Constitutional right granted by those principles & freedoms.

The gun is not the problem. The person is. The evil or demented person that misuses the tool.. The Society that creates & enables the circumstances that allows people to fester in a world of psychological filth … that’s to blame. Tough to deal with. Requires soul-searching.

So much easier to just blame the gun.

Next time you have a hammer in your hand, just imagine the damage you could do, if only you were demented.


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PS – As for the NRA, they are just an advocate group, of which I have been a member at times, working hard to keep the ultimate hard-left goal of having a mass gun confiscation from ever becoming reality in this Country.

The World at War!



I can’t escape. I try, but I can’t.

“The World at War: The Ultimate Restored Edition” – this has got to be the very best documentary on World War II that has ever been made It runs about 24 hours long – plus, an additional 12 hours, or so, of extras.

So, I figured I’d get lost in that for a spell and never once think about the politics of today. Wrong. I should have known better. It’s all connected.

First, the program: Extremely comprehensive with fantastic footage and, having been initially created in the early 70s, never-again-type interviews with people who lived through it, perhaps, most notably Adolf Hitler’s secretary, Gertraud “Traudl” Junge. The opening sequence of the series is one of the best moments of television I have ever seen. Narration by the great Lawrence Olivier is understated, concise and perfectly delivered. I used to think “World War II in Colour” [narrated by Robert Powell], was the best of it’s kind, but this one is clearly better. Covers the War from post-WW I Europe through the Atomic Bombs. Intense footage dealing with “The Final Solution.” A very objective telling of the whole story. Yet, detailed as it is, I found myself wanting more.

And then, there’s politics. Liberal or Conservative, you can find yourself paralleling many of the actions & events to today’s world. I know I did. I often found myself thinking, “Just like the ‘liberals,’ or just like ‘conservatives.'” Cannot be escaped. I am trapped. But really, that’s the wonderful thing about history. It really is all connected, like it or not.

There were many extraordinary moments in this series, but 2 things really gnawed at me – in light of today’s goings-on:

1 – The infamous book burnings. Just like today. Trying to bury the history we don’t want to deal with … and led by large numbers of teachers & students – just the people who should WANT to know and remember history.

2 – Adolf Hitler rose to power in post-depression Germany in the early 1930s. One of his first projects was an industrial infrastructure effort, the Reichsautobahn, an Interstate highway system, if you will. It was an extremely successful, and popular, project. In addition, he wanted to have every German own an automobile, thus, the People’s Car – Volkswagen. Yep, he was instrumental in the design of the VW Beetle. Here’s the thing — today, we tear down statues and remove flags and memorials that we just “don’t like.” Part of our heritage here in America. I just wonder how many folks who feel that way are driving around in one of Nazi Germany’s, “car of the people” … and never give it a thought.

Excellent history and thought-provoking series! Gives you a real reason for resistance!

Restoring the World at War video

Scaring the Left Out of Their Minds!


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This is politics NOT as usual!

Remember when we were young back in the late 60s & early 70s? When we “resisted” against Big Brother and all that jazz? Well, Big Brother has gotten MUCH bigger.

Now, most of my “comrades” from those days are still “resisting,” it would appear. Now though they are “resisting” in FAVOR of Big Brother. They seem to crave that big, bloated, over-intrusive government monstrosity that used to make them cringe.

I wish to announce my consistency on the subject. I railed against Big Brother then, rail against it now. Unlike most – it would appear – it has very little to do with a D or an R; everything to do with making government smaller, more efficient, more responsive to the people it is supposed to be.

I am glad that Donald J. Trump is doing those things that he can to fulfil his duties as Commander-in-Chief. I am glad that he his unconventional in how he goes about doing things. That is what politics NOT as usual requires.

Somehow, that is completely lost on the left. Those edgy, out-of-the-box, free-thinking intellectuals are completely dismayed by such audacity. Irony.

For 65 years, the US government has been expanding and over-reaching to proportions never dreamed of by the Founding Fathers. The left loves that … and why not? They control the entire bureaucratic mess.

First, let me say that it takes no courage whatsoever to speak out against our current Prpropaganda-left-behind-vik-battaile-politics-democratesesident. There is nothing brave, nothing that should be admired, about it. Throughout schooling of recent years – and particularly so in many of our public schools; and exceedingly so in most of our Universities – young people begin the process of a type of “soft” indoctrination. So, generations are now hatching out of a cult-like education rather than a readin’,’rightin’ & ‘rithmetic hands on REAL education — filled with history & science & civics & added skills to help one succeed in the real, after school, world. Now, it’s gender studies, white privilege. So, right there, you start out at a “thinking” disadvantage.

Nearly every movie, nearly every TV show that you watch puts your new found world views on the big screen. Your every notion, every perception, is validated.

Turn on the news … people who used to pretend to be unbiased, now just let it rip. Trump is an idiot, a BAD guy, he is equated with Hitler, with the Devil.

Politics — left-wing Politics – are everywhere: at Football games, on the awards shows, on the nightly news, in every editorial page, on the late night “comedy” shows, on ESPN for cryin’ out loud.

No courage at all. Everything you believe is parroted everywhere you look. You are constantly being validated. If a differing opinion is offered, it is often shouted down by screaming, lunatic-like, banshees.

So, where’s the courage?

Now, I see these long lists being shared on social media of all the things you liberals just cannot compromise on with the other side. “Where I Stand .. Period” Wow. Just WOW! What a list it is, too. Filled with warped notions of how the “other side” views things, full of some of their very favorite things; fake news & alternate facts. NO COMPROMISE. Door shut. End of story. And why would you? You live in a world where it appears that everyone agrees with you. So very brave.

Yet, with all those empowering entities on your side, you can still only convince half the Country. There’s a reason the Right is called the Right. Our plan for a nation’s success depends on just one document … The Constitution. It needs no bells & whistles to make it palatable to us. It just is … like Truth.

All it requires is politics NOT as usual. That is where I stand. Period!

My patience has worn thin on this. My respect toward those who think like this is fast diminishing. I am sick of RESISTANCE in the GREATEST NATION EVER FOUNDED.

Where do we go from here? When there is no room for compromise? Prospects are not good for a satisfactory resolution.

I mentioned months ago that this election was about the heart & soul of America. Given all I have enumerated above, the left thought they had won. Gee, even “Homeland’ has a female President elect and a whole new take on terrorism on display. But, alas, Hillary lost. Politics AS usual lost. You, liberals, progressives, anarchists — the Left — have collectively lost your minds. All you know to do is … to RESIST.


We Wish You a Merry Christmas … or, not?



The argument has been ongoing forever. Well, maybe not that long. Many moons ago, when I was younger, Happy Holidays & Merry Christmas were virtually one & the same – interchangeable – whether it be on a Hallmark Card or a classic Christmas Carole or in personal exchanges. Not many ever gave it a thought. I know that I sure never did.

Tchristmas_pie_charthen, came the age of political correctness – a time I hope that will end soon and be nothing more than a bad memory – that is, a time where rather than express our pure and spontaneous feelings, we first ran our thoughts through a “who might this offend” filter. In and of itself, not a totally bad thing, but, as with so many other fads, fashions & agendas created by the progressive, liberal left, it got carried away to the extreme and had more bad consequences than the original good intentions warranted.

After all, this whole silly movement was started by progressives who, by their very nature, absolutely cannot leave well enough alone. Ironically, in 2016, it is these very liberals who are now complaining about folks causing them to have to THINK about what to say. Well, how very appropriate. Isn’t that what they did in the first place? Back in the day, one did not have to think about it, they simply said it and went about their business, never realizing the extent of outraged & ostracized people they were leaving in their wake. “Merry Christmas … oh wait … might this person not CELEBRATE Christmas? O my gosh! What should I say?” So, in the beginning, it was Christians, by & large, who had to stop and think, because liberals made them feel self-conscious and over-bearing in their own beliefs.

Maybe 15 years ago – could be longer – 20? – I remember that the Post Office was bandying around the absurd idea of discontinuing religious-oriented Christmas stamps. It was a serious push. Only public outcry halted it in its tracks, but forevermore, the seed was planted in the minds of many. “Merry Christmas … oh, can I still say that?” Can’t put a number on how many times I heard that over the years as a window clerk at the local PO.

Now, Facebook is littered with posts by mostly left-leaning users [some of whom are Christians] lamenting the fact they there is even a discussion. They claim that their conservative-leaning friends are forcing them to think about how they say things, that they just say Happy Holidays because it’s a catch-all to cover ALL the holidays they claim fall during this period – upwards of 2 dozen, I have seen quoted – so that no one is offended. Well, ain’t that some s–t! If there is any truth at all in this pretty outrageous claim, it is that it’s a REACTION to their initial ACTION. It’s called, “Why Trump Won the Election.” Lesson not learned.

There is so much wrong with this “claim” that I cannot enumerate all the reasons, but the most glaring is this: There is NOTHING inherently wrong with saying Happy Holidays, if that’s the way you feel. What is wrong, is drawing attention to it every year, every time it’s said, as if it is the enlightened way to go that other idiots simply can’t comprehend. Just say it, or not. Move on. In a [still] largely Christian nation, Merry Christmas is perfectly acceptable. That’s what naturally flows from my mouth, without thinking about it. Always has. Always will.

The left’s push to make ME think about it has come full circle. If you, as a liberal, find yourself with that dilemma, just look in the mirror. As with every other one of your causes, rather than letting it flow of its own accord, you attempt to shove it down the throats of all. And then, as always, complain about it being puked up all over your wonderful ideals.

Merry Christmas to all, and to all a good night!




Why I Will Vote For Donald J. Trump!


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And why you should, too!

Donald Trump is not an ideologue. Whatever else anyone thinks about him, he is not that. Hillary Clinton is incurable cancer. He is change. Real change, not rhetorical change. He will do what he feels is best for the Country, not for one party or demographic. He will straighten out many of the scandalous practices that are presently inherent in the system. More than likely, he will be more moderate than Hillary Clinton would be – he has no Progressive base to pander to, will at least pretend to defend the Constitution, and will treat us all alike. He will be so much more inclusive than anyone gives him a chance at being. He will be fair to all citizens … as it should be. He will take a new approach toward the economic aspects of the job. We will be safer, more prosperous, and less preoccupied with “make-believe” social issues. Donald Trump will lead an Administration that will be fun – in the sense that he is himself – while it gets down to business; he will choose trustworthy, genuine, competent people to surround himself with, Gov. Mike Pence being just the first.

It is not so much about virtue, for in the end we are all imperfect. It is about loving, believing in, and preserving the Republic.

He will make America GREAT again. That means WE will be great again!


  • Here is the list of the “Contract with the American Voter” policies detailed by Trump:
  • Propose a Constitutional Amendment to impose term limits on all members of Congress
  • Institute a hiring freeze on all federal employees to reduce federal workforce through attrition (exempting military, public safety, and public health)
  • Require for every new federal regulation, two existing regulations must be eliminated.
  • Institute a five year-ban on White House and Congressional officials becoming lobbyists after they leave government service.
  • Create a lifetime ban on White House officials lobbying on behalf of a foreign government.
  • Institute a complete ban on foreign lobbyists raising money for American elections.
  • Announce intention to renegotiate NAFTA or withdraw from the deal under Article 2205.
  • Announce withdrawal from the Trans-Pacific Partnership.
  • Direct Secretary of the Treasury to label China a currency manipulator.
  • Direct the Secretary of Commerce and U.S. Trade Representative to identify all foreign trading abuses that unfairly impact American workers and direct them to use every tool under American and international law to end those abuses immediately.
  • Lift the restrictions on the production of $50 trillion dollars’ worth of job-producing American energy reserves, including shale, oil, natural gas and clean coal.
  • Lift the Obama-Clinton roadblocks and allow vital energy infrastructure projects, like the Keystone Pipeline, to move forward.
  • Cancel billions in payments to U.N. climate change programs and use the money to fix America’s water and environmental infrastructure.
  • Cancel every unconstitutional executive action, memorandum and order issued by President Obama.
  • Begin the process of selecting a replacement for Justice Scalia from one of the 20 judges on my list, who will uphold and defend the Constitution of the United States.
  • Cancel all federal funding to Sanctuary Cities.
  • Begin removing the more than 2 million criminal illegal immigrants from the country and cancel visas to foreign countries that won’t take them back.

When all is said & done, I know this. If I am fortunate enough to meet George, Thomas, Benjamin, John or Samuel up there in God’s Country, I want to be able to look them in the eye, and say, “I did what I could, I am sorry.”

Why I cannot vote for a Democrat:

Do Democrats even exist any longer? I mean really. They used to be somewhat sensible — from JFK on to Bill Clinton. Oh they were a fun lot before that, and even a bit after — you know, the KKK, Jim Crow laws, the Great Society. Seems a lot has changed. They started to swiftly move to the left. Blue Dog & Reagan Democrats have vanished. Democrats are not liberal, not in the classical sense. A few are, most THINK they are, but really, they aren’t. Liberal is no longer a strong enough description for them. Now, they are Progressives. Man, they are full of themselves, too. Progress connotes a positive thing, generally. But in this case, I think it fair to say that their progress helps to destroy family units, abort babies, encourage drug use, create fear & mayhem in common areas that ought to be private like public restrooms, minimizes the importance of traditional marriage, sweeps aside religious freedoms and, in fact un-separates religion from the State when it serves their purpose, creates an even LARGER State, works to erode the Constitution, lives to divide our identities into groups – most of which are given “victimhood” status, strive for a borderless world – not to mention – Country, believe white men are evil incarnate – people who are inherently racist, bigoted, privileged, demons [unless, of course, they ARE “progressive”], and, in the end, they want a common payer – not just for health, but for just about everything. Democrats have become, in a rather short period of time, Statists … Socialists … made up of anarchists, atheists, the dependent, and every other half-baked group that is not the beneficiary of that old, white, privilege.

In short, the Founding Fathers suck.

Sad, because if they continue to lead the Country in the direction it has been headed, it will very soon not be America any longer. It’s already looking foreign to me, and I’ve lived here all my life, by God! 😉

To me, Democrats = not-so-Progressive Socialists, and for now on, that’s what I am referring to them as. And, you may call me what you wish.

Why I can’t vote for Hillary Clinton [one reason, of many!]:

Has the atmosphere of political corruption become so insidious that it has actually seeped into the mindset of the electorate and is embraced & accepted as part of the process and thus OK?
A teary-eyed Hillary Clinton says she is sorry – after 6 months of saying that she has done nothing wrong – and accepts responsibility. What is she sorry for? For having a private e-mail account. That is what she apologized for. Not for having her own secret, private server. Not for mixing her private and State Department e-mails. Not for deleting, according to her, about half of them. Not for picking & choosing which ones to be deleted. No, not for possibly having the server wiped clean. Not even for having top secret e-mails passing through that server. And that according to IGs. And, of course, not for lying about any of that.
Still, #1 in the Democrat primary polls. One of 20 people in Obama’s circle, who is supposed to know what classified material looks like. She said so herself. Over time, she has added qualifiers … one after another … as she got pushed further & further into a corner. Yet, they are/were there.
So, she’s sorry. And, responsible. So? If I get a speeding ticket, I am responsible. I pay the ticket. If my drawer was short at the Post Office, I was responsible. I paid the shortage. What does being responsible mean to Hillary Clinton? 4 men dead at a Libyan facility. She was responsible. Classified material passing through her private server – against the rules – she was responsible.
Show us Hillary. Take responsibility. Drop out!

Hillary tells us who she is — she is UNFIT to lead this Nation. There will always be a swirl of controversy surrounding her … because she is a lying, conniving, entitled, corruption-manifesting, career politician.

VOTE TRUMP/Pence in 2016!!

The Little Rascals … with guns!


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Off in a small wooded tract of land adjacent to Memorial Junior High School on Hendrickson Avenue in Valley Stream stood a few abandoned & boarded-up old homes … known as the old Sloan place. In the late 50s & early 60s they were the perfect place for a bunch of Long Island kids to find some mischief to get into.

If memory serves correctly, one couldn’t see the structures from the road. They sat off in those woods. Yet, we found them. It was kind of like life had just stood still in that wooded lot. It was quiet and the buildings stood there silently observing. So, of course we just had to give them something to see.

doc_richWe used to run around in there, jump off the rooftops, generally raising innocent hell. One day, in search of something to do, we pried the plywood off one of the windows – maybe more – and went on in. We weren’t invited. I remember well the musty smell of the place, a ketchup bottle [don’t ask me why that sticks in my mind!!!!], old calendars, writings … the place was fully stocked & furnished – like the people that had lived there had simply vanished. It was quite an adventure arena for a bunch of young lads …

… One time, we were robbed – of some loose change, crayons, baseball cards – whatever we had in our pockets. Some of us were outside, others inside, someone was climbing through the window … I think we were on our way out. Suddenly, a gang of “thugs” were there … at least some of those outside scattered & returned home. The rest of us were robbed! A major haul it was, too, for those gangsters, at least a couple of years older than we were .pinky balls.. 10 cents worth of cold, hard cash!

The event that solidified that place in the logs of ancient lore for “our gang” was the finding of the guns. Today, at least one of those guns resides down in the sewer … dumped in the drain at the southwest end of Amherst Avenue – the same drain that swallowed up many a baseball, a few pensy-pinkies, and lots of grand memories – tossed there to forever hide the evidence.

In one of those dimly lit houses we were exploring all the nooks & crannies that held the memorabilia from a time gone by … old furniture, toys, dishes, doll-houses. We were just poking around looking for cool stuff we could heist. I opened a closet door … pay-dirt … the Holy Grail. There they were standing in the corner. I’ll let Doc recount it: “Richie [edit: that’s me] opened a closet and found three guns, a .22, a duck hunting pump shotgun, and a double barrel shotgun that was rusted and in two pieces. Henry Cavanaugh took the pump gun, pumped it once, pointed it at my stomach and pulled the trigger. It was empty. Richie  being of more intelligence, [edit: debatable ;-)]  pointed the .22 toward the window and pulled the trigger. It fired off three rounds .. one at a TV screen. I will never forget it. Had Henry grabbed the .22 it is very likely that I wouldn’t be here today. I think Ronnie [edit: my brother] was there, also. Richie brought the rifle home on his red Schwinn and his dad took the firing pin out. Imagine a kid riding his bike today with a rifle across the handle bars. One of the luckiest days of my life.”

Yeah, Ronnie was there alright. Simultaneously to the pump gun incident, I was pointing that [unknown to me at the time] loaded .22 rifle right at him. I guess, at the last split second, that little birdie in my head reminded me of my parents always telling me not to point a gun at another person. I moved the gun, pointed it to a window, and pressed the trigger. POW! Shattered glass.

But for the grace of God, there was nearly a double homicide on that day. Makes you wonder … maybe guardian angels really exist. Summer of ’64? We were all but 8-12 years old. Imagine the headline that could have been, but for the intervention of fate, “2 VS Youths Shot & Killed at the Old Sloan Place.” Yeah, it was one of the luckiest days in ALL of our lives.

Those were the days my friends …



On the Confederate Battle Flag …


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~~ Random thoughts ~~


When I was a boy, my Father instilled upon me a sense of history … a story … of my Country. I was born in Brooklyn. Grew up on Long Island. I am a Yankee. Though, if truth be told, I am a Dodgers fan and have lived in North Carolina since late 1991. Back to His Story. Forts William Henry & Ticonderoga and Gettysburg were places he loved to take the family. At Gettysburg, I was exposed to my first Confederate flag. Racism wasn’t part of my experience. It was “just” a flag that Americans fought under in a terrible & bloody war.

States rights were at issue, and on that point, I am very sympathetic with the Confederacy. The Federal Government is far too big, out of all Constitutional proportion.

After this war, slaves were free. But they had no skills. Many thought they were actually worse off being free. White soldiers – most of whom never owned a slave – came back from the war damaged, many missing limbs. They were poor when they went off to war, more so now that they were back. The land was ravaged by Union soldiers, pillaged & burned in many places … as scarred as the men who came home. Many just wandered with no purpose. Their economy was broken, and all suffered. Economically, whites & blacks in the South were now somewhat on equal footing. Reconstruction had begun.

It all was growing pains for a fledgling Nation … all part of the story.

In the end, Americans, north & south, black & white, died, were maimed, suffered. The men who fought the great battles that decided this war and reshaped a Nation deserve to be honored … preserved land, monuments … and perhaps most of all, those banners … the flags they gave their lives for should be flown anywhere, by anyone, who chooses to. And, it should be done without the “flyer” being branded as a racist.

That’s tolerance. That’s America.


No Confederate Flag I know of has ever slid down its pole and killed anyone. No gun that I know of has ever come down off its gun rack and gone off on its own and killed anyone. A mentally unbalanced & disturbed person? Now there’s something that could happen. He/she COULD go off and kill someone, on their own, with or without a gun; with or without any knowledge of a Confederate Flag – or any other flag – even ever existing. So what does Governor Haley of SC do? Caves. Caves like Amazon, Apple, the Memphis, TN City Council, TV Land and so many others. She makes the “hard” choice and orders the Flag taken down from the SC State House property. That’s what passes as crisis resolution in today’s wimpy society. It may or may not have been a good choice at another point in time, but right now, in my opinion, the brave choice, in these times, would have been for her to propose a bold and innovative mental health initiative in her State. That may actually have helped to fix a problem. Now, though, everyone can feel all warm & fuzzy for accomplishing nothing that had anything to do with a mass murder. All the politicians who voted in support of her Flag decision would never, ever get my vote again if I lived in SC. What a joke … and not a very funny one at that!

The issue of the Confederate flag flying from State buildings or on their grounds should, in my opinion, be up to the people of those individual States. My fear is that it is but a foot in the door, and one-by-one – as we have already begun to see – all symbols of the Confederacy – one half of America at the time – will be eradicated. I don’t really believe that it has much to do at all with slavery, but more with the belittling and continued humiliation of the American South … the Republican American South. Has the South not suffered enough? Does it not end until it is beaten into submission? Reminder – that already occurred, 150 years ago. Since that time, great, great strides have been made in repairing racial relations. You find the flag offensive? Look elsewhere. I find Al Sharpton more than offensive – he has surely done more to damage racial relations in recent times than any Confederate flag may have done in that same period … and he gets to sit with our Divider-in-Chief at the White House – excuse me, the Rainbow House. We, as a Nation, have welcomed into our society many enemies of the past [some not so “passed”] … integrated them into our fabric. Japanese, Germans, Russians, Italians, Mexicans, Muslims … What a wonderful thing. Blending their heritage, their music, their foods, their holidays, their FLAGS in with ours. One day, as I watched a baseball game, I learned that it was Japanese Heritage Day … and there they were, in the stands, watching our National Pastime, hundreds of Japanese-Americans … waving their little Japanese flags … very similar, if not exact, to those on the planes that bombed Pearl Harbor. Nobody was offended Yet, now, 150 years after the most tumultuous time in our history, there is a vocal, self-proclaiming “tolerant” and “open-minded” segment of our society that STILL can’t forgive and forget and accept the heritage of millions of their FELLOW Americans. Instead, in their giddy little posts about rainbows, they still spew hate toward the American South. It’s all mainly driven by political forces. “Y’all” should be ashamed of yourselves.


Oh my gosh. I hate to sound like I’m saying, “some of my best friends are Black,” but I guess, to a certain extent, I am. Eddie and Sydney were two of my brothers working on the psychiatric wards for the criminally “insane”- among others – and we trusted our safety with each other. Joanne was a Hussy Busser [long story]. Wayne & Steve were both bandmates. Many others. Not only friends, but some of my favorite customers, while working as a record store manager and later for the USPS, were Black.

I have to say all that because I know the way many people think these days, and saying I am against the removal of the Confederate Flag from the SC State House, maybe in Mississippi [update: NOT!], and definitely from Wal-Mart shelves [sure this is just the beginning of a great tsunami] will cause some to think – maybe even say – that I am a racist. It has happened before. If you really know me, then you know that not to be true. I am a great champion of American heritage & history, and I do not like to see it destroyed, whatever the part we might be discussing. The totality of our heritage is what we are today. The Confederacy was a part of one of the most tumultuous eras in our formation. They were Americans, White AND Black. 10153482141895930Was slavery an issue? I cannot say no to that question, but it became THE issue ONLY after it became politically expedient. Sound familiar? Oh, the Union had its share of Abolitionists driving that cause, but the war was steeped in the overall issue of State Rights versus large Federal Government. Gee, much like today. Thousands of good, hard-working, family men – some of great heritage going back to the Revolution and before – lost their lives slugging it out on American soil. Half fought under the Confederate battle flag. I won’t give you a history lesson. Consider though … slaves were sold to European traders by BLACK African lords and traders; many slaves were held in northern states – though the institution was abolished by the time of the Civil War – so what makes the American Flag any less evil? Why is one an accepted symbol, the other not? The fact is, both sides had slaves, one just gave them up sooner. We all owe it to one another, as Americans, to hold together all the traditions that were a part of the journey that made us great. Not to pick & choose. What someone today chooses to have that flag represent is largely irrelevant. What it meant to the average Confederate soldier in the 1860s was that it served as a symbol of their defense of the homeland. Blacks were not the only slaves in history. You do know that. Whites were slaves, Jews were slaves, American Indians adopted slaves. Africans held their own slaves. It’s not just a sin of American White folks many years ago. It has been a human sin that few cultures are not guilty of. A sad day it is when we try to erase the memory of our past so that someday it will be no more. Peace, brothers & sisters. To learn from the past you must remember the past. But who can remember it in the future if we destroy it now?


If you are paying attention you will see that the removal of the Confederate flag in Columbia is not a singular event. There is a coordinated effort going on to erase all reminders of the Confederacy … and more, now expanding toward Jefferson, the American flag, etc. This had to be in the works; just waiting for the moment to spring it. It is, like I mentioned yesterday that it would be, a tsunami. As always, the focus is on race. How about Heritage? I know the progressive left is behind this all. That is not surprising. What is would be how easily Republicans are going belly up on it. When will we learn that our “national conversations” are simply about giving in to the left. Our Constitution is under attack. 2nd Amendment here they come!


I guess we just owe everybody … About slavery: Slavery in America “only” lasted 222 years – Muslims have been enslaving whites and Christians and Jews since around 600 A.D. – Whites have been enslaved “From Virginia to Barbados” – the English enslaved Irish/Vikings and Scots by the millions – Whites [and Americans] were enslaved by the millions by North Africans and Muslims forcing the USA, under President Jefferson, to build a navy and go to war to stop the enslavement – In the English colonies of early America, prior to 1640, most sugar grown was done by forced white labor – Legal white slavery in Massachusetts in 1658 – In England, in a 1765 report, a 90% mortality rate for slave children in “workhouses” was recorded – The word slave derives from slav, a Caucasian ethnic group so often taken and enslaved by Muslim Ottoman empire – Blacks in America [and first slave holder Anthony Johnson] owned whites as slaves – As white slaves and indentured servants decreased from Scotland/Ireland/Germany, the need for African slaves increased – By around 1756, it became mostly black slavery – According to John Adams, white labor was preferred by most to black labor at that time.

… and that just touches the surface. Turns out, really, that America isn’t the big, bad racist, slave holding, complex that many tout us as being. As I have said here 47 zillion times … and counting … it is a part of the history of mankind …. war, subjugation, the whole kit & kaboodle. So, what other nation went to war, at least in part, to free slaves from bondage at the cost of 620, 000 killed and maybe another million wounded and missing? America is the greatest country ever, and perhaps the only that was founded on ideals: 1. Rights come from God, not government 2. All political power emanates from the people 3. Limited representative republic 4. Written Constitution 5. Private Property Rights

“As a man is said to have a right to his property, he may be equally said to have a property in his rights.” — James Madison


For those who still think it was all about the “flag” … sickening. I think we should remove all – everything – reminders of anything in our past. It’s all evil. Every bit of it. Take it all down, from Columbus to Obama’s last words. Blank slate. And keep it blank, so that no one ever knows what has ever happened. Freaking lunatics. Historical monuments were constructed to preserve history. Now, we are destroying it. ISIS-like. Do you feel better now? Will it benefit future generations in any way. I am so pee’d off my eyes could shoot blood. Ridiculous!

Why? Why can’t they let a dead man rest? And his wife? This kind of overreaction is insane … I mean that literally. It all stems from a mass murder in Charleston, SC. How do we get from that to this? At best, a very weak link. The odd thing? Confederate and Union veterans often met at anniversaries of certain Civil War events. Men who would have bludgeoned one another on the battlefield now hugged, shook hands, exchanged stories, shared camaraderie. They were the ones who put their lives on the line, and they could forgive. Not today’s extreme progressives. No. They, collectively, have got to be the biggest bunch of hate filled hypocrites in the Country. Think of it, too … most all these monuments, national cemeteries, memorials, commemorated sites, etc. were established during, or not very long after [relatively speaking], the Civil War was fought. Hatred might have been expected to be waxing at that time. But, to the contrary … All of it was done to remember … the errors, the horrors, the heritage, the history. Why, oh why, can’t people realize that? Why are some people enveloped in hate 150 years after, when the people who were there could see it for what it was and protect it for the sake of our National well-being? We are far too self-righteous in this day and age. You know, sometimes, the people who preceded us knew better. We are not always “the Bomb”. As usual, Abe says it best:

“Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation: conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war. . .testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated. . . can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate. . .we cannot consecrate. . . we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us. . .that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion. . . that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain. . . that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom. . . and that government of the people. . .by the people. . .for the people. . . shall not perish from the earth. “

Erasing the “scars” [i.e. digging up graves] is the antithesis of Lincoln’s words.


The Civil War was a war fought in which the issue of slavery did not become the driving force until mid-stream, when, much like today, an issue became politically expedient. The North fought to preserve the Union. The South called the war the War of Northern Aggression [which should tell you why they fought]. That rotten scoundrel Confederate general … what was his name? … oh, Robert E. Lee … “racist” Southerner that he was … was probably the best General in all the land. He was asked, by the North, to be in charge of the DC defense as a Major General at the war’s outset. He politely declined, stating that he could not fight against his fellow Virginians. That was the war in a nutshell, but don’t let spin get in your way.


We have these monuments and gravesites, battlefields and banners the battlers fought under. It’s called Preservation of History And that keeps our story straight for other generations … like a wampum belt, if I may. Does destroying these things change the History?

Better question: When I look in the mirror these days I no longer see the young man I once was; I see, instead, an aging geezer. Should I smash the mirror? Will that make me look & feel younger? I think not.

No … everything will be exactly the same.


I’ll let President Lincoln have the last word:

 “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union. I shall do less whenever I shall believe what I am doing hurts the cause, and I shall do more whenever I shall believe doing more will help the cause.” … Abraham Lincoln

Confederate Spirit (2015_07_26 15_19_56 UTC)

A good read:

Were Confederate Generals Traitors? — by Walter E. Williams


There’s no place like home … the exodus of the Northern Cheyenne


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Many are familiar with the Cherokees of the SE and their forced removal to Indian Territory known as the Trail of Tears. Many, too, know of Chief Joseph and his Nez Perce tribesmen of the NW and their battles to attempt escape into Canada. Not as many are familiar with this particularly heartbreaking exodus ~~~

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After a rousing defeat of the US 7th Cavalry at the Little Bighorn River in Montana, the victorious bands of united Sioux & Cheyenne began their dispersal moving to what would be their winter camps. Meanwhile, embarrassed by the defeat, just before the Nation’s Centennial, the military stepped up the intensity and numbers of soldiers in the field. Harassed and starving, nearly all bands – both Sioux & Cheyenne – surrendered or fled into Canada over the next couple of years.

In May of 1877 great Oglala Sioux war leader Crazy Horse surrendered his band at Fort Robinson, Nebraska. With him were at least two bands of northern Cheyenne led by chiefs Dull Knife & Little Wolf. They had been driven from their winter camps by the US Army and found their way to long-time friend & ally, Crazy Horse, whose camp was subsequently attacked, as well. It was a long, hard winter for these people. In the spring, with much suffering among the women, children, and elders, Crazy Horse took his bands to the fort. One officer on the scene commented that it looked more like a victory parade than a surrender.

Unexpectedly to the Cheyenne, they were instructed to be moved to the southern Cheyenne reservation in Indian Territory [present day Oklahoma]. Little Wolf & Dull Knife became enraged by this bad news. Both had signed the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 which forevermore had ceded lands in Montana & South Dakota, including the Black Hills, to the  Sioux AND Cheyenne.

It had been a bad time since the victory against Custer on the Little Bighorn. Now, the bands were all separated, the harassing winter campaigns by the Army had driven many of them into the stark, bitter winter snow … only to finally reach relative safety to be greeted with this news.

They began their trip to the south. Arriving in early August of 1877, the 972 souls who had began had now dwindled to 937. Some older folks had passed away during the arduous journey and were buried along the dusty trail. Some of the warriors slipped away at opportune times to rejoin their brethren in the north. Looking around their new surroundings, the Indians were disgusted by the poor, dusty, dry conditions. Many of the southern Cheyenne had been beaten a decade before along with many Comanche, Kiowa, Plains Apache and Arapaho. Others came in after the Red River Wars in 1874-75. It was clear to the newcomers, free just a few months ago, that reservation life down in this alien landscape might just be worse than death. When allowed to hunt and no game was found, merely old buffalo remains, starvation seemed possible. Then, a measles outbreak spread among them.

In the pre-dawn hours of September 10, 1878, Dull Knife & Little Wolf silently led their people north to try, at all costs, to make it back to their homeland. Their numbers now stood at an estimated high of just 353. As the Indians silently slipped from the reservation in the darkness, it wasn’t long before their departure was realized. Soon, a detachment of some 240 infantry & cavalry were in hot pursuit.


The Canyon at the Battle Site of Punished Woman’s Fork

For the next six weeks, the Indians managed to elude the pursuing troops through a series of running skirmishes and rear guard actions, most notably at Turkey Springs, along the Kansas border, and at Punished Woman’s Fork a bit further north. Though they were able to forage meager supplies during the Turkey Springs affair, they ended up losing all their food, some supplies, and 60 of their horses during the Punished Woman’s Fork battle. In fact, they almost lost it all. The Indians found themselves corned in a pit at nightfall. Against all odds, they slipped out of a tight situation by stealth overnight. Following, as they moved hurriedly through Kansas, a series of depredations occurred as the Cheyenne desperately sought food. Through cunning and treachery, they attacked homesteaders & cowboys on into Nebraska. Meanwhile, more soldiers from the forts in the region joined the chase, as did some 3,000 settlers — all told, 13,000 VS some 300. Five times the army caught up with the Cheyenne; five times the army was foiled by the mobility of the warriors and their families.

Winter was approaching and their numbers were continuing to dwindle. Council was held. Little Wolf’s people decided they wanted to continue with the exodus north. They moved a bit and then wintered, peacefully, in the Sand Hills of Nebraska. Once spring arrived, the small band of less than 115 people moved out into the Powder River Country of Montana. They ended up surrendering to officers at Fort Keogh, near present day Miles City. They had reached the homeland and the men joined service with the white man as army scouts.

As this somewhat happy ending was playing out, Dull Knife’s band of about 150 would have a tougher go of it. They were tired and no longer wanted to run. Their plan was to turn themselves in to Red Cloud Agency of which Fort Robinson was a part. After all this turbulence and tribulation, they would end up back where the journey had started. The worst, though, was yet to come.


— Red Cloud Agency – sketch published in Harper’s Weekly, 1876

Before they could reach their goal, the Cheyenne were surrounded by elements of the Army. On the night of October 23, 1878, the Indians, in camp & still surrounded, disassembled their guns and distributed the parts among the woman who hid the larger pieces under their robes & blankets while actually wearing the smaller pieces as ornaments & jewelry. Two days later, the 150 Cheyenne people were crowded into a barracks built for 75 soldiers. The guns were reassembled and hidden under a floor board. Dull Knife agreed to a peace if his band could stay on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota.


The Pit And so it stayed as an official response from Washington was awaited. That word arrived on January 3, 1879. It was not good. The northern Cheyenne were to be returned to the south, in Indian Territory, with their southern relatives. Dull Knife refused. To “entice” him to change his mind, the windows were barred and rations & firewood were withheld. Still, the Cheyenne refused to leave. On January 9, the Army took one of the lesser chiefs as a hostage to use as a bargaining chip. That night, at approximately 9:45, the Cheyenne removed the guns from hiding and fought their way out of the fort into the freezing elements and snow covered ground. The soldiers gave hot pursuit and a running battle in the darkness ensued. Soon, there were a string of bloodied dead & wounded in the snow. 32, following a warrior named Little Finger Nail, hid in a place now known as The Pit at the Hat Creek Bluffs. They were discovered by soldiers who repeatedly fired into the pit. Out of ammo and defenseless, Little Finger Nail brazenly charged the soldiers to protect the women & children. He was quickly cut down. There were 9 survivors in the pit. 65 Cheyenne were returned as prisoners the next morning. Of those, 23 were wounded. Another 6 were found hiding within miles of the fort over the next several days. Dull Knife was among the survivors. Months later, the US Government finally relented and allowed the surviving members of Dull Knife’s band of northern Cheyenne to join Little Wolf at Fort Keogh.

The good news to this bit of history is that, eventually, the Cheyenne of the northern plains did end up with their own plot of land in their home territory of Montana, the Northern Cheyenne Reservation.

 In the above slide show of 4 photos, one is the ledger that was found on Little Finger Nail’s body. It is housed at the Museum of Natural History in New York City. Back in the 80s, I visited there and they also had his shirt on display, complete with bullet hole. I searched their online archives and could not find the shirt to add to this account. I had taken a photo of both the shirt & ledger book while there, but I cannot find it, so, for now, the ledger picture alone must suffice.


For a much more detailed account, read Cheyenne Autumn by Mari Sandoz

Though not entirely historical, an entertaining movie directed by the legendary John Ford is available on DVD: Cheyenne Autumn [Richard Widmark, Carrol Baker, Ricardo Montalban, Gilbert Roland, Sal Mineo]